The ethics of ethical expertise in science, medicine and healthcare policies
With the global spread of medical and scientific developments such as genetically modified crops, stem cell research and assisted reproductive technologies (ART), many ountries have seen another trend, namely the implementation of institutionalised expert advice and expert committees. Ethics committees are becoming a widely used tool in policy making concerning science and healthcare, and expert advice is as common nowadays as it is diverse. The spectrum of experts ranges from physicians, scientists and lawyers to philosophers and social scientists. They act as advisers in local, national, or even transnational ethics committees such as at the World Health Organization (WHO), or at the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
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