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International collaborative trials, placebo controls and The Declaration of Helsinki: need for clarification in Paragraph 32

A Y Malik, F Ghafoor

DOI: 10.20529/IJME.2012.004


Inequities in socio-economic and healthcare systems between developed and developing countries have been thrown into sharp relief by globalisation. At the same time, pharmaceutical companies have started conducting clinical trials in developing countries in order to reduce their costs substantially. Together, these two developments create ethical challenges for sponsors and researchers of these trials.

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