Robert Spitzer and psychiatric classification: technical challenges and ethical dilemmas

KS Jacob

Abstract

Dr Robert Leopold Spitzer (May 22, 1932–December 25, 2015), the architect of modern psychiatric diagnostic criteria and classification, died recently at the age of 83 in Seattle. Under his leadership, the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manuals (DSM) became the international standard.

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